International Waters learning Exchange & Resource Network

Enclosed seas and LMEs


Transboundary Environmental Problems

Black Sea

  • Nutrient over-enrichment/eutrophication
  • Decline in natural resources (e.g. fisheries)
  • Chemical pollution
  • Habitat and biodiversity changes - including alien species introduction

Guinea Current LME

  • Decline of fish stocks
  • Loss of ecosystem integrity and yields in a highly variable environment including the effects of global climate change
  • Deterioration in water quality from land and sea based activities, eutrophication and harmful algal blooms
  • Habitat destruction and alteration

Mediterranean Sea

  • Decline in biodiversity
  • Decline in fisheries
  • Decline of seawater quality

South China Sea LME

  • Modification of habitats
  • Overexploitation of living aquatic resources
  • Pollution of aquatic environments

Yellow Sea LME

  • Pollution problems
  • Ecosystem problems
  • Fisheries problems
  • Biodiversity problems

Bay of Bengal LME

  • Overexploitation of marine living resources
  • Degradation of critical habitats
  • Pollution

Caribbean LME

  • Unsustainable fisheries
  • Habitat degradation
  • Pollution