Addressing Land-based Activities in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO-LaB) - Results
#532: World Bank Terminal Evaluation (2004), GEF 4 Tracking Tool (2010) - #1082, IWC6 Results Note (2011) - #1082, GEF3 IW Tracking Tool (2010) - 1247, IWC6 Results Note (2011) - 1247, UNEP Terminal Evaluation (2010) - 1247, GEF3 IW Tracking Tool (2010) - 1462, IWC6 Results Note (2011) - 1462
Key Basin Project Results
"1. Creation and execution of a pre-TDA stage, the Marine Ecosystem Diagnostic Analysis (MEDA). The production of the nine MEDA reports represents an early delivery to the Project countries of information which is immediately useful to researchers and particularly resource managers.
2. The ASCLME Project has undertaken a Policy and Governance process which has resulted in the creation of a Policy and Governance Coordinator post within the Project.
3. ASCLME Project has built regional and international support for a “Western Indian Ocean Sustainable Ecosystem Alliance” (WIOSEA)." (#1462, Agulhas-Somali Current LME)
"1. Generation of scientific knowledge: regional data gaps analysis and regional research plans prepared; vessel-times procured for stock assessments; regional fisheries databases operational and populated with new and historic data.
2. Development of institutional and human capacity: various regional training organized; regional fisheries observers trained to international standards; MSc addressing SWIOFP’s thematic supported.
3. Development of a regional fisheries management structure: the SWIO riparian countries regularly meet during the South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission (SWIOFC) and its Scientific Committee sessions to debate fisheries information and management; riparian" (#1082, Southwest Indian Ocean Fisheries)
[Land-Based Sources of Pollution]
"1. The development, negotiation and adoption of the Protocol for the Protection of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Western Indian Ocean from Land- Based Sources and Activities (LBSA Protocol); and the Amended Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Western Indian Ocean (Amended Nairobi Convention), by all Contracting Parties to the Nairobi Convention.
2. Successful completion of six demonstration projects. Two of the projects namely: Municipal Waste Water Management at Shimo La Tewa Prison using wetland-lagoon system in Kenya, and Stormwater/Wastewater drainage and treatment using a lagoon/constructed wetland system on Pemba Island in Tanzania, have introduced very successful cost effective approaches in the management of municipal wastewater for urban population of up to 5,000 and 20,000 respectively at an affordable cost.
3. Revision and production of the Second Edition of the School Teacher’s Guide to Marine Environmental Education in the Western Indian Ocean region. 500 copies have been disseminated to schools in the WIO region and the demand is very high." (#1247, Western Indian Ocean LBS)
The project design is being replicated in the follow-on Western Indian Ocean Marine Electronic Highway and Coastal and Marine Protection Project. The East African coastal states of Mozambique, Tanzania, and Kenya have requested to be included in the regional oil spill contingency plan as a means of fulfilling their obligations under the Nairobi Convention. Parties to this convention agree to cooperate in responding to pollution emergencies in the convention area and to reduce or eliminate pollution or the threat of pollution, and to this end to develop and promote, individually and jointly, contingency plans for responding to incidents involving pollution or the threat of pollution. This is a very positive outcome, given that the project was developed with replicability in mind. (#532, Western Indian Ocean Oil)
Municipal wastewater pollution reduction
Year: N/A - Value: NA[Land-based Sources]
"INDICATOR#1: At least six demonstration projects addressing issues related to Municipal Waste Water (MWW), and physical alteration and destruction of habitats (PADH) successively implemented by the end of the project.
RESULT: Seven demonstration projects on Municipal Waste Water and Physical Alteration and Destruction of Habitats completed. Two demonstration projects on Municipal Waste Water Management at Shimo La Tewa Prison using wetland-lagoon system in Kenya and Stormwater/wastewater drainage and treatment using a lagoon/constructed wetland system on Pemba Island in Tanzania have introduced very successful approaches in the management of municipal wastewater for urban population of upto 5,000 and 20,000 respectively." (#1247, Western Indian Ocean LBS)
Establishment of country-specific inter-ministerial committees
Year: N/A - Value: YES[Fisheries]
"The IMC is international, the South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission (SWIOFC), and fully functional, and its capacities are strengthened under the project." (#1082, 2011, Southwest Indian Ocean Fierhes Project (SWIOPF)
Regional legal agreements and cooperation frameworks
Year: N/A - Value: YES[Land-Based Sources of Pollution]
Protocol for the Protection of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Western Indian Ocean from Land Based Sources and Activities (LBSA Protocol).
Development and negotiation of the Amended Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Western Indian Ocean (Amended Nairobi Convention) in by December 2009. The Amended Nairobi Convention was adopted by all Contracting Parties to the Nairobi Convention in April 2010.
Common regional monitoring methods established and pilot monitoring programme implemented by the end of 2007.
Common regional water and sediment quality monitoring approaches and methods were agreed upon and training and standard sampling equipment provided. A regional water and sediment Monitoring Programme designed and successfully implemented. (#1247, Western Indian Ocean Land, 2011)
Component 1: Legislation and regulation for conventions (US$477,000 revised to US$222,000)
Achievement of the objectives of the project is rated satisfactory. While the project’s development and global objectives were broad, which makes measuringe impacts difficult, the project has clearly helped to protect the environmental integrity of the coastal and marine ecosystems of the western Indian Ocean, and to limit the contamination of international waters by supporting the creation and maintenance of capacity to respond to oil spills. The project achieved all of its specific objectives. Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles have ratified CLC92, FUND92, and OPRC90. Comoros, Mauritius, and Seychelles in addition ratified the MARPOL 73/78 convention. All four counties have translated the provisions of the conventions into national legislation and regulations. All countries have established national capacity to respond to an oil spill, preparing and testing national oil spill contingency plans. The oil and shipping industries have played an active role in preparing and testing the national plans, and intend to actively participate in responding to oil spills. All countries now have adequate oil spill response equipment to cover their major ports. The wide distribution of equipment also ensures that the time required to respond to a spill is minimal. The project generated widespread public awareness throughout the region of the threat of oil spills and of the means to address them, assuring public support for taxes to maintain capacity. All four countries have identified mechanisms to finance periodic oil spill exercises, maintain and replenish equipment, and update oil spill contingency plans and manuals. The regional plan has been prepared and tested. Countries of the region know their responsibilities and roles in the event of an emergency and how to mobilize the assistance of neighboring countries and the oil and shipping industries should the need arise. A regional center has been established in Madagascar with financing from the French Cooperation. At the time the project closed, its staff had been appointed and equipment procured, but a permanent location to house the center had yet to be identified. No major spills had occurred in the region since implementation of the project began. Small Tier 1 oil spills did occur in the Port Louis harbor in Mauritius and in Fort Dauphin in Madagascar during project implementation, and all were effectively addressed without causing significant damage. (#532, Western Indian Ocean Oil)
Regional Management Institutions
Year: N/A - Value: YES[LME/Regional Seas]
Institution: Nairobi Convention
Institution: Southwest Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission, Indian Ocean Tuna Commission
GEF Project Resuult:
"The main results to date have been to promote the role of the South West Indian Ocean Commission as the platform for regional discussion concerning fisheries research and management, support informed participation of the SWIO riparian States to the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission and to reinforce the capacity in fisheries research and Ecosystem Approach in Fisheries (EAF) management.
INDICATOR 2. Development of a regional fisheries management structure fostered for implementing the LME-based approach to ecosystem based management through strengthening the Southwest Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission (SWIOFC) and other relevant regional bodies:SWIOFC acts as the Project Steering Committee and is the depository of Project databases (4). The Project supports the works of the Plenary Session (at least once a year), Scientific Committee and Working Groups of the Commission (2 meetings per year)." (#1082, Southwest Indian Ocean Fisheries, 2011)
[Land Based Sources]
"62. The institutional framework and governance mechanisms established or employed by the project at regional and national level are favourable in terms of allowing for the project outcomes/benefits to be sustained.
63. The WIO-LaB project was implemented under the umbrella of the Nairobi Convention and was a vehicle for delivery of part of the Convention‘s Programme of Work agreed by its Conference of Parties. This ensured the project was strongly embedded in the political and institutional framework of the Convention. The Nairobi Convention framework allowed the project to engage with France (La Réunion) and Somalia who took part as observers in later Project Steering Committee (PSC) meetings. Somalia‘s regular participation from 2007 was welcomed in PSC meeting decisions as part of a wider concerted effort to assist Somalia to participate more actively in Nairobi Convention Activities.
64. The project itself helped to raise the profile of the Convention within the WIO region, including within the parent ministries of the national focal point institutions (NFPIs) and amongst other ministries and agencies as well as with regional bodies such as the Indian Ocean Commission. The recent increase in member contributions to the Convention has been attributed to this visibility and associated recognition of the practical value and relevance of the Convention process.
65. A key result of the project and mechanism for follow up at the regional level is the Protocol for the Protection of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Western Indian Ocean from Land-based Sources and Activities adopted in April 2010 by the Conference of Plenipotentiaries to the Nairobi Convention, and signed by eight countries including six of the eight WIO-LaB project partners. The Protocol includes provision ‗to develop and adopt procedures and mechanism to assess and promote compliance with and enforcement of this protocol.‘
66. National plans of action (NPAs) were prepared by Tanzania, South Africa, Seychelles, Kenya, Comoros and Madagascar either as stand-alone plans (Tanzania and South Africa) or integrated into wider coastal zone or environmental management strategies. Plans have been initiated in Mauritius and Mozambique.
67. There remain strong differences amongst the WIO countries in terms of capacity and technical know-how to implement measures foreseen by the LBSA Protocol, and the need for increased human resources was recognised when the Protocol was adopted. There is further potential to build on expertise-sharing initiated through the project which established and reinforced networks, identified centres of excellence and regional activity centres to support project activities at the regional level, and encouraged collaboration at laboratory level." (#1247, Western Indian Ocean Fisheries)
Component 5: Regional institutional strengthening (US$1 million revised to US$1.2 million)
Outputs of this component are satisfactory. A regional plan to coordinate countries’ response to an oil spill has been prepared and by the time the project closed had been tested twice through joint exercises. The regional plan has been significantly strengthened by drawing on the expertise of the industry and
government of South Africa in responding to oil spills for its preparation. Some details of the cooperative agreements have still to be fully articulated, such as the arrangements for clearing equipment through customs. The withdrawal of Seychelles’s offer to host the regional coordination center on the grounds that its distant location from the other islands would make coordination of regional activities difficult led to a delay of nearly two years in establishing the center. The center was finally established in Madagascar in early 2004. Staff have been appointed, and equipment to operate the center has been procured. However, at the time the project closed a suitable office for the center was being identified. French Cooperation has agreed to finance the initial start-up costs of the center and operational costs for its first years of operation. The rationale for choosing Madagascar to host the regional coordination center is not clear. Some stakeholders have expressed concern that Madagascar does not have sufficient capacity to effectively coordinate countries’ response to an oil spill, and believe that either Mauritius or Réunion would be more suitable locations for the center. Some observers argue that the regional coordination center with a
full-time staff is not necessary. Instead the responsibilities of a regional coordinator could be added to those of a national coordinator. (#532, Western Indian Ocean Oil)
Year: N/A - Value: YES[Land-Based Sources]
"Preparation of National Action Programs for Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Seychelles, South Africa and Tanzania completed. The National Plan for Kenya has led to the drafting of a coastal management policy." (#1247, Western Indian Ocean)
Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis: Agreement on transboundary priorities and root causes
Year: 2009 - Value: YES[Land-Based Sources of Pollution]
Revised Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis on Land Based Activities and Sources of pollution degrading the coastal and marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean (TDA) available and agreed by the end of year 2009
[LME/Regional Seas and Fisheries - Joint]
"The ASCLME Project has undertaken several novel approaches to meeting the challenges of TDA/SAP development.
The most major one has been the creation and execution of a pre-TDA stage, the Marine Ecosystem Diagnostic Analysis (MEDA). The structure and the per-country focus of the MEDA results in a very comprehensive state-of-the-environment report, which documents all the threats to the ecosystem in each country, most of which are either transboundary in nature or cross-cutting throughout the countries. The production of the nine MEDA reports represents an early delivery to the Project countries of information which is immediately useful to researchers and particularly resource managers. "
Development of Strategic Action Program (SAP)
Year: 2010 - Value: YES[LME/Regional Seas and Fisheries - Joint]
Final draft 2014
Revised Strategic Action Programme for the Protection of the Coastal and Marine Environment of the Western Indian Ocean from Land Based Sources and Activities (WIO-SAP) available and endorsed at Ministerial level by middle of year 2010.
Completion of the WIO-SAP which was endorsed by all Contracting Parties to the Nairobi Convention in April 2010. In response to issues and strategic actions identified on physical alteration and destruction of habitats the WIO-SAP has catalysed the negotiation for a protocol concerning integrated
coastal zone management.