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LME:LEARN - LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

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02 Nov 2019 - publication - English New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding
AUTHORS: Scott A. Kulp & Benjamin H. Strauss. ABSTRACT: Most estimates of global mean sea-level rise this century fall below 2 m. This quantity is comparable to the positive vertical bias of the principle digital elevation model (DEM) used to assess global and national population exposures to extreme coastal water levels, NASA’s SRTM. CoastalDEM is a new DEM utilizing neural networks to reduce SRTM error. Here we show – employing CoastalDEM—that 190 M people (150–250 M, 90% CI) currently occ...
30 Oct 2019 - publication - English Techno-Optimism and Ocean Governance: New Trends in Maritime Monitoring
AUTHOR: Elizabeth Nyman ABSTRACT: Monitoring marine activities has always been a difficult task due to the vastness of the world's oceans. This inability to properly monitor both high seas and territorial zones alike has meant that illegal activities at sea have been able to flourish, from illegal fishing to human rights violations to maritime piracy. Lately, however, the rise of new methods of technological monitoring – from satellites to UAVs – has increased optimism that a better, tech...
30 Oct 2019 - publication - English The Role of Maritime Spatial Planning on the Advance of Blue Energy in the European Union
AUTHORS: Pablo Quero García, Javier García Sanabria, Juan Adolfo Chica Ruiz ABSTRACT: In recent years the European Union has firmly committed itself to energy from oceans as a means of decarbonising the European energy system. Despite a favourable political landscape, the development of offshore renewables still faces economic and technological barriers, which are coupled with the inherent difficulties of an increasingly industrialised marine environment, such as complex evolving regulati...
30 Oct 2019 - publication - English The Emerging Policy Landscape for Marine Spatial Planning in Europe
AUTHORS: Wanfei Qiu, Peter J.S. Jones ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the emerging policy landscape for marine spatial planning in the European Union, which consists of four main categories of policy drivers: environmental legislation, legislation on marine renewable energy, fisheries regulations and the Integrated Maritime Policy. The weak links between these categories of policy drivers, underpinned by a lack of clarity regarding the vision for sustainability, pose major ch...
30 Oct 2019 - publication - English The Future of Blue Carbon Science
AUTHORS: Peter I. Macreadie, Andrea Anton, John A. Raven, Nicola Beaumont, Rod M. Connolly, Daniel A. Friess, Jeffrey J. Kelleway, Hilary Kennedy, Tomohiro Kuwae, Paul S. Lavery, Catherine E. Lovelock, Dan A. Smale, Eugenia T. Apostolaki, Trisha B. Atwood, Jeff Baldock, Thomas S. Bianchi, Gail L. Chmura, Bradley D. Eyre, James W. Fourqurean, Jason M. Hall-Spencer, Mark Huxham, Iris E. Hendriks, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Dan Laffoley, Tiziana Luisetti, Núria Marbà, Pere Masque, Karen J. McGlathery,...
20 Oct 2019 - publication - English Scale, Space and Delimitation in Marine Legal Governance – Perspectives from the Baltic Sea
AUTHOR: David Langlet ABSTRACT: Recent decades have seen an increasing emphasis on (re)structuring marine governance regulation to fit relevant natural systems in terms of scale and spatial scope, and thus also on the delimitation of spatial units. Being at the heart of ecosystem based management, this focus on the relationship between scale and space in nature and in regulatory systems necessitates an increased awareness of the use of spatial and scale-related concepts in marine governan...
20 Oct 2019 - publication - English Resilience and Social Capital: The Engagement of Fisheries Communities in Marine Spatial Planning
AUTHORS: Y.W. Bakker, J. de Koning, J. van Tatenhove ABSTRACT: Between 2010 and 2016, the Orkney Islands Council, Highland Council and Marine Scotland have collaborated to develop a pilot Marine Spatial Plan for the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters in Scotland. This paper explores the challenges of marine spatial planning processes by looking at the possibilities for fisheries communities to mobilize their social capital – in the form of bonding, bridging or linking – in order to re-posit...
20 Oct 2019 - publication - English Mediterranean UNESCO World Heritage at Risk from Coastal Flooding and Erosion due to Sea-Level Rise
AUTHORS: Lena Reimann, Athanasios T. Vafeidis, Sally Brown, Jochen Hinkel, Richard S.J. Tol ABSTRACT: UNESCO World Heritage sites (WHS) located in coastal areas are increasingly at risk from coastal hazards due to sea-level rise. In this study, we assess Mediterranean cultural WHS at risk from coastal flooding and erosion under four sea-level rise scenarios until 2100. Based on the analysis of spatially explicit WHS data, we develop an index-based approach that allows for ranking WHS at ...
20 Oct 2019 - publication - English Means and Long-Term Trends of Global Coastal Zone Precipitation
AUTHOR: Scott Curtis ABSTRACT: Precipitation in the coastal zone is important to the socio-economic and ecological well-being of the world. Meteorologically, precipitation is generated by unique mechanisms at the land-sea interface, which is why coastal zone precipitation is not well resolved by global climate models. Yet, to date, much more efort has been placed in analyzing global precipitation over the oceans and land. In this study, global coastal zone precipitation is quantifed by se...
20 Oct 2019 - publication - English Recent Pace of Change in Human Impact on the World’s Ocean
AUTHORS: Benjamin S. Halpern, Melanie Frazier, Jamie Aferbach, Julia S. Lowndes, Fiorenza Micheli, Casey O’Hara, Courtney Scarborough, Kimberly A. Selkoe ABSTRACT: Humans interact with the oceans in diverse and profound ways. The scope, magnitude, footprint and ultimate cumulative impacts of human activities can threaten ocean ecosystems and have changed over time, resulting in new challenges and threats to marine ecosystems. A fundamental gap in understanding how humanity is affecting th...
20 Oct 2019 - publication - English Stopping Overexploitation of Living Resources on the High Seas
AUTHOR: Robert J. Hofman ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the provisions and efforts to implement the 1946 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) and the 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). It illustrates progress and continuing challenges to stopping the overexploitation of living resources in high seas areas beyond national jurisdictions. Progress includes recognition that living organisms interact with each other and the...
20 Oct 2019 - publication - English Sea Basin Maritime Spatial Planning: A Case Study of the Baltic Sea Region and Poland
AUTHOR: Jacek Zaucha ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the development of sea basin maritime spatial planning (MSP) through the concerted efforts of several coastal nations based on the case of the Baltic Sea Region. Additionally, the readiness of Poland to assume its place within the existing sea-basin planning system is analyzed since Poland, as one of the last countries in the region to do so, announced the official commencement of MSP on November 18, 2013. The paper analyzes the progress o...
19 Oct 2019 - publication - English High-Profile International Commitments for Ocean Protection: Empty Promises or Meaningful Progress?
AUTHORS: Kirsten Grorud-Colvert, Vanessa Constant, Jenna Sullivan-Stack, Katherine Dziedzic, Sara L. Hamilton, Zachary Randell, Heather Fulton-Bennett, Zechariah D. Meunier, Silke Bachhuber, Alissa J. Rickborn, Barbara Spiecker, Jane Lubchenco ABSTRACT: As 2020 approaches, countries are accelerating their commitments to protect 10% of the ocean by establishing and expanding marine protected areas (MPAs) and other area-based protections. Since it began in 2014, the Our Ocean Conference (OO...
19 Oct 2019 - publication - English Losses of Natural Coastal Wetlands by Land Conversion and Ecological Degradation in the Urbanizing Chinese Coast
AUTHORS: Qiaoying Lin and Shen Yu ABSTRACT: Coastal wetland ecosystems have experienced serious losses of area and ecological function and are currently facing worldwide challenges due to coastal development and global climate change. This study attempted to explore patterns and possible factors driving loss of natural coastal wetlands due to land conversion (permanent loss) and ecological degradation (temporal loss) in three urbanizing coastal city clusters, China in the period of 1990–2...
19 Oct 2019 - publication - English Imbalances in Interaction for Transboundary Marine Spatial Planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region
AUTHORS: Holger Janßen, Riku Varjopuro, Anne Luttmann, Andrea Morf, Hanna Nieminen ABSTRACT: Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has evolved over many years and since its early beginnings there has been a growing urgency to develop transboundary planning. This is because the borders of marine ecosystems and the dynamics of some maritime activities, such as navigation, are not restricted to or bound by specific political and administrative borders. Cooperation across borders has been promoted by...
19 Oct 2019 - publication - English Global Long-Term Observations of Coastal Erosion and Accretion
AUTHORS: Lorenzo Mentaschi, Michalis I. Vousdoukas, Jean-Francois Pekel, Evangelos Voukouvalas and Luc Feyen ABSTRACT: Changes in coastal morphology have broad consequences for the sustainability of coastal communities, structures and ecosystems. Although coasts are monitored locally in many places, understanding long term changes at a global scale remains a challenge. Here we present a global and consistent evaluation of coastal morphodynamics over 32 years (1984–2015) based on satellite...
19 Oct 2019 - publication - English An Introduction to Marine Spatial Planning
AUTHOR: Charles N. Ehler ABSTRACT: Competition and confl ict for space and resources characterizes the oceans of the Coral Triangle. Because of some of the highest rates of population growth and increasing food and development needs, these waters are now experiencing increased levels of conflict and social unrest as a result of differing and uneven levels of economic development, resource use, and technological change between urban and rural area within a country. Economic and technologic...
17 Oct 2019 - publication - English Economic Development and Coastal Ecosystem Change in China
AUTHORS: Qiang He, Mark D. Bertness, John F. Bruno, Bo Li, Guoqian Chen, Tyler C. Coverdale, Andrew H. Altieri, Junhong Bai, Tao Sun, Steven C. Pennings, Jianguo Liu, Paul R. Ehrlich and Baoshan Cui ABSTRACT: Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's ...
17 Oct 2019 - publication - English Dynamic Flood Modeling Essential to Assess the Coastal Impacts of Climate Change
AUTHORS: Patrick L. Barnard, Li H. Erikson, Amy C. Foxgrover, Juliette A. Finzi Hart, Patrick Limber, Andrea C. O’Neill, Maarten van Ormondt, Sean Vitousek, Nathan Wood, Maya K. Hayden and Jeanne M. Jones ABSTRACT: Coastal inundation due to sea level rise (SLR) is projected to displace hundreds of millions of people worldwide over the next century, creating significant economic, humanitarian, and national-security challenges. However, the majority of previous efforts to characterize poten...
17 Oct 2019 - publication - English Ecosystem Services Sustainability in the Mediterranean Sea: Assessment of Status and Trends Using Multiple Modelling Approaches
AUTHORS: Camino Liquete, Chiara Piroddi, Diego Macías, Jean-Noël Druon and Grazia Zulian ABSTRACT: Mediterranean ecosystems support important processes and functions that bring direct benefits to human society. Yet, marine ecosystem services are usually overlooked due to the challenges in identifying and quantifying them. This paper proposes the application of several biophysical and ecosystem modelling approaches to assess spatially and temporally the sustainable use and supply of select...

 

 

 

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