International Waters learning Exchange & Resource Network

Stakeholder Consultation and Participation

Stakeholders are any party who may - directly or indirectly, positively or negatively – affect or be affected by the outcomes of projects or programs. Consequently, a wide range of stakeholders are involved in the TDA/SAP process. They can range from the Government, regulatory agencies, businesses, communities, civil society and NGOs.

Participation can be defined as the process through which people with an interest (stakeholders) influence and share control over development initiatives and the decisions and resources that affect them.  In practice this involves employing measures to:

  • Identify relevant stakeholders;
  • Share information with them;
  • Listen to their views;
  • Involve them in processes of development planning and decision-making;
  • Contribute to their capacity-building; and
  • Empower them to initiate, manage and control their own self-development.

For the TDA to be objective and the SAP effective, the TDA/SAP process must develop a shared vision between stakeholders. It has to be accepted that some solutions may not be acceptable to all parties, but it is imperative that those that are eventually adopted should reflect a rigorous social assessment and be subjected to open stakeholder consultation.

Further information can be found at:

Handbook on Stakeholder Consultation and Participation in African Development Bank Operations

Harmonicop Handbook: Learning Together to Manage Together – Improving Participation in Water Management