Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is a management tool used to support decision-making, ensure accountability, measure results and impacts of projects and programmes, and extract lessons from a given programme and its projects. Monitoring and evaluation (M & E) indicators are long-term monitoring tools used to verify the implementation of the SAP. There are three types of GEF M & E indicator:
During the Action Planning step of the SAP development a set of process, stress reduction and environmental status indicators need to be produced for each goal, objective and action. Examples of each are described in more detail below.
Process indicators focus on the outputs or actions that are likely to lead towards a desirable outcome. A particular characteristic of international waters projects is the length of time that is generally required before actual changes can be detected in the transboundary water environment. Process indicators demonstrate actual on-the-ground institutional and political progress in the step-by-step process to the resolution of these complex problems. They should assist in tracking the institutional, policy, legislative and regulatory reforms necessary to bring about change.
Examples of process indicators are shown Here.
Stress Reduction Indicators
Whereas process indicators are output based and relate to needed reforms or programs, stress reduction indicators relate to project objectives or outcomes. In particular, they focus on concrete actions that reduce environmental stress.
Stress reduction indicators indicate the rate of success of specific on-the-ground actions implemented by collaborating countries. Often a combination of stress reduction indicators in several nations may be needed to produce detectable changes in transboundary waters.
Examples of stress reduction indicators are shown Here.
Environmental Status Indicators
Environmental status indicators are goal orientated and focus on improvements of ecosystem quality that usually extend beyond the lifetime of the project. It can take a number of years before sufficient stress reduction measures are implemented in a sufficient number of countries to detect a change in the transboundary water environment.
Social indicators may also be appropriate to measure whether communities and stakeholders benefit from the changes in environmental conditions brought about by the project.
Examples of environmental status indicators are shown Here.