International Waters learning Exchange & Resource Network


Armitage, D. et al. 2008. Adaptive co-management for social-ecological complexity. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 7: 95-102.

Biermann, F. and Pattberg, P. 2012. Global Environmental Governance Reconsidered. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Chen, S. 2013. Environmental cooperation in the South China Sea: Factors, actors and mechanisms. Ocean and Coastal Management 85: 131-140.

Ehler, C., and Douvere, F. 2009. Marine Spatial Planning: a step-by-step approach toward ecosystem-based management. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and Man and the Biosphere Programme. IOC Manual and Guides No. 53, ICAM Dossier No. 6. Paris: UNESCO.

Ekebom, J. 2008. BALANCE Technical Summary Report: Towards Marine Spatial planning in the Baltic Sea. BALANCE Secretariat.

Emerton, L., Bishop, J. and Thomas, L. 2006. Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas: A global review of challenges and options. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Fanning, L. et al. 2007. A large marine ecosystem governance framework. Marine Policy 31 : 434-443.

Fanning, L., Mahon, R., Baldwin, K., and Douglas, S. 2015. Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme (TWAP) Assessment of Governance Arrangements for the Ocean, Volume 1: Transboundary Large Marine Ecosystems. IOC Technical Series, 119. Paris: UNESCO.

GEF LME :LEARN. 2018. Environmental Economics for Maine Ecosystem Management Toolkit. Paris, France.

GEF LME : LEARN. 2018. Marine Spatial Planning Toolkit. Paris, France.

GEF LME :LEARN. 2018. Stakeholder Participation in Environmental Policy Toolkit. Paris, France.

GEF LME :LEARN. 2018. Large Marine Ecosystems Strategic Approach Toolkit. Paris, France.

Gill, D. et al. 2017. Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally. Nature 543 : 665– 669.

Gold, B., Pastoors, M., Babb-Brott, D., Ehler, C., King, M., Maes, F., Mengerink, K., Mueller, M., Pitta E Cuhna, T., Ruckelshaus, M., Sandifer, P. and Veum, K. 2011. CALAMAR Expert Paper – Integrated Marine Policies and Tools Working Group.

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act. 1975 (Cth), Act No 85 of 1975 (as amended up to 2011). Zoning plans are legislative instruments - Art 35D.

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. 2009. Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009.

Hassan, D. 2013. The Great Barrier Reef- Marine Spatial Planning, Environmental Policy and Law 43: 259-69.

Jay, S. 2010. Planners to the rescue: Spatial planning facilitating the development of offshore wind energy. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60 : 493–499.

Kaiser, M. 2005. Assessing ethics and animal welfare in animal biotechnology for farm production. Rev.Sci.Tech Off. int. Epiz 24: 75-87.

Kenchington, R.A., and J.C. Day. 2011. Zoning, a Fundamental Cornerstone of Effective Marine Spatial Planning: Lessons Learnt from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Journal of Coastal Conservation 15 : 271 - 278.

Krause., G,, Brugere, B., Diedrich, A., Ebeling, M. W., Ferse, S.C. A., Mikkelsen, E., Pérez Agúndez, J. A. , Stead, S. M., Stybel, M., and M. Troell. 2015. A revolution without people? Closing the people–policy gap in aquaculture development. Aquaculture, 447: 44-55.

Krause, G., and Stead, S.M. 2017. Governance and Offshore Aquaculture in Multi-Marine-Resource User Areas. In: Buck, B.H., and Langan, R., eds. Aquaculture Perspective of Multi-Use Sites in the Open Ocean. Springer.

Lemos, M. C. and Agrawal, A. 2006 Environmental Governance. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31: 297-325.

Lockwood, M., Davidson, J., Curtis, A., Stratford, E., and R. Griffith. 2010. Governance Principles for Natural Resource Management. Society & Natural Resources Journal 23: 986-1001.

Mahon, R. and T. Phillips. 2012. Governance assessment for the Guianas-Brazil continental shelf fisheries ecosystem. Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies (CERMES), University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados, Technical Report No 59.

Mahon, R., Cooke, A., Fanning, L. and P. McConney. 2013. Governance arrangements for marine ecosystems of the Wider Caribbean Region. Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, University of the West Indies, CERMES Technical Report No 60.

Mahon, R., Fanning, L., Akrofi, J., Bertule, M., DeStefano, L., Forslund, A., Glennie, P., Heileman, S., Talaue McManus, L., Nijsten, G-J., Rast, W., and K. Uusimaa. 2016. Comparison of Governance Assessments Conducted by the Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme Components. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi.

Mahon, R., Fanning, L. and P. McConney. 2014. Assessing and facilitating emerging regional ocean governance arrangements in the Wider Caribbean Region. Ocean Yearbook 28: 631-671.

Mahon, R., Fanning, L., and P. McConney. 2017. Assessing governance performance in Transboundary Water Systems. Environmental Development 24 : 146-155.

Mahon, R., McConney, P., Parsram, K., Simmons, B., Didier, M., Fanning, L., Goff, P., Haywood, B., and T. Shaw. 2010. Ocean governance in the Wider Caribbean Region: Communication and coordination mechanisms by which states interact with regional organisations and projects CERMES Technical Report No 40.

McConney, P., Monnereau, I., Simmons, B., and R. Mahon. 2016. Report on the Survey of National Intersectoral Coordination Mechanisms. Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados. CERMES Technical Report.

Mepham, B. 2000. A Framework for the Ethical Analysis of Novel Foods: The Ethical Matrix. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 12: 165-176.

Olsen, S. 2003. Frameworks and indicators for assessing progress in integrated coastal management initiatives. Ocean & Coastal Management 46: 347–361.

Olsen, S.B., Sutinen, J.G., Juda, L., Hennesey, T.M., and T.A. Grigalunas. 2006. A Handbook on Governance and Socioeconomics of Large Marine Ecosystems. Newport, RI : University of Rhode Island.

Pernetta, J. C. and M. Bewers. 2013. The South China Sea Project: a multilateral marine and coastal area management Initiative. Ocean and Coastal Management 85: 125-126.

Pernetta, J. C. and Y. Jiang. 2013. Managing multi-lateral, intergovernmental projects and programmes: the case of the UNEP/GEF South China Sea project. Ocean and Coastal Management 85: 141-152.

Thomas, L., and Middleton, J. 2003. Guidelines for Management Planning of Protected Areas. IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

UNEP. 2011. Taking Steps toward Marine and Coastal Ecosystem-Based Management - An Introductory Guide. Nairobi: UNEP.

Young, O. R. 2013. On environmental governance: sustainability, efficiency and equity. Boulder, CD: Paradigm Publishers.