Implementation of the Strategic Action Programme (SAP) of the Pacific Small Island Developing States (SPREP) - Results
GEF IDS: 530
#530: UNDP Terminal Evaluation (2004), #530: Results Note (2013), #2131: GEF 3 IW Tracking Tool (2010), #2131: IWC6 Results Note (2011), #2586: GEF 4 Tracking Tool (2010), #2586: GEF5 Tracking Tool (2012), #2586: IWC6 Results Note (2011)
Key Basin Project Results
"1. A detailed work plan was developed for the region-wide implementation of the SAP, with funding, reporting, technical advisory, monitoring and evaluation arrangements established.
2. Thirteen participating countries were fully engaged in implementing community based pilot projects that addressed SAP focal issues and their root causes.
3. New institutional arrangements were established for the conservation and management of transboundary fish stocks, including stock assessment refinement and progress made towards creating a regional tuna fisheries commission." (#530, Pacific SIDS SAP)
"1.Supporting small Pacific Island developing States contribution to negotiating and bringing into force the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Convention; and facilitating the establishment of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission.
2.Significant and ongoing changes in regional management and governance of tuna stocks in the western and central Pacific supported by improvements in scientific knowledge on oceanic transboundary fish stocks and related ecosystem aspects of the Western Tropical Pacific Warm Pool Large Marine Ecosystem (WTP LME).
3.Establishment and strengthening of national systems and skills in planning, managing information, developing and modifying legislation, inspection, observer coverage and participation in science programmes." (#2131, Pacific SIDS Fisheries)
"1. Two Subregional Heads of State forums: The Micronesian Chief Executives Summit and the Melanesian Spearhead Group have established Water and Sanitation Committees
2. 13 Pacific Island Countries (Cook Islands, Fiji, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Kiribati, Niue, Palau, Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI), Tonga, Samoa, Solomons, Vanuatu and Tuvalu) have established National Inter-Ministerial Water Committees
3. Reforestation ongoing in upper Nadi Basin in Fiji, Ngerikiil Catchment in Palau and Apia Catchment in Samoa" (#2586, Pacific Wastewater)
Municipal wastewater pollution reduction
Year: N/A - Value: N Reduction 39,400 kg/yr (including co-funded activities)Installation of 20 composting toilets in Tuvalu and replication into Tonga and Nauru; 20 pilot systems are installed in Nauru, including baffled reactors and one composting toilet; Nauru currently working on installing composting toilets into schools; Pilot sand filter and irrigation sanitation systems installed in Tonga; sewerage system upgrade completed for Apia in Samoa (cofinanced); Rehabilitation of septic systems in Majuro and planned installation of pilot composting toilets. Installation of nine household, communal and community Ecotrench systems in Cook Islands
Installation of 20 composting toilets in Tuvalu and replication into Tonga and Nauru; 20 pilot systems are installed in Nauru, including baffled reactors and one composting toilet; Nauru currently working on installing composting toilets into schools; Pilot sand filter and irrigation sanitation systems installed in Tonga; sewerage system upgrade completed for Apia in Samoa (cofinanced); Rehabilitation of septic systems in Majuro and planned installation of pilot composting toilets; Sarakata Catchment septic tanks rehabilitated in Vanuatu. Water safety plans developed and being implemented in FSM (Pohnpei), Niue (Alofi North and South), Palau (Nett Watershed), RMI (Majuro), Vanuatu (Luganville), and Solomon Islands
N Reduction 39,400 kg/yr
(including co-funded activities)
35% reduction in sewage pollution over eq.~40,000 ha area, and 35% reduction in water leakage for systems supplying ~85,000 people by end of project (#2586, Pacific Wastewater)
Agriculture pollution reduction practices
Year: N/A - Value: [see desc]Reductions in nutrient loadings ranging from 10-50% (#2586, Pacific Wastewater)
Restored habitat, including wetlands
Year: N/A - Value: 8000 ha30% increase in protected forest area for ~8,000 ha of land Reduction in eutrophication for 4 coastal receiving waters sites
30% increase in population with access to safe water supply and sanitation for 6 sites (#2586, Pacific Wastewater)
Conserved/protected wetland, MPAs, and fish refugia habitat
Year: N/A - Value: [see desc]Confirmed initiation or implementation of ICM program in 5% of the region's coastline; Certification/recognition of ICM system; Identification of protetcted areas and areas for restoration; Adoption of PSHEM Code for voluntary use as a standard for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of PSHEM System (#2586, Pacific Wastewater)
Reduced fishing pressure
Year: N/A - Value: 30% tuna/yrINDICATOR#1 Improved information and knowledge on the oceanic transboundary fish stocks and related ecosystem aspects of the Western Tropical Pacific (WTP) warm pool large marine ecosystem (LME) being used by the WCPFC and Pacific SIDS to adopt and apply measures to enhance the conservation and management of transboundary oceanic fishery resources and protection of the biodiversity of the WTP LME
Conservation and management measures are based on advice provided by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community Oceanic Fisheries Programme (which is both contracted to provide science to the WCPFC and its Scientific Committee and directly to Pacific SIDS members) and on information collected and analysed from
integrated national and regional monitoring programmes, databases and information systems. Over the course of the last 5 years have identified fisheries stock that require management attention and have provided the information and knowledge required to develop conservation and management measures to apply to the region’s oceanic resource and for the protection of the biodiversity of the Western Tropical warm Pool large marine ecosystem.
An early resolve at the new Commission was to limit vessels operating in the Commission area to those of members and cooperating non-members, and by 2005 conservation and management measures applied that sought to arrest the fishing effort and the take of big eye and yellowfin tuna. The WCPFC has also adopted resolutions to apply FAO International Plans of Actions and guidelines that relate to the reduction of incidental catch of seabirds, turtle mortality, incidental catches of other non-fish species and overcapacity. The project has supported the adoption by WCPFC and Pacific SIDS have adopted a range of innovative
measures, some of them global precedent-setting including:
-The largest rights-based cap and trade management scheme in international fisheries – the PNA purse seine vessel day scheme (VDS)
-Seasonal closures on fishing on floating rafts (FADs) to reduce bycatches
-A 30% reduction in catches of vulnerable bigeye tune by major longline fleets
-Large scale high seas closures to purse seine fishing vessels
-Compulsory retention of catches of major tuna species
-A ban on setting on whale sharks
-Measures to reduce shark finning
-Measures to mitigate bycatches of seabirds and turtles
-The world’s largest onboard observer programme, including 100% coverage on tropical purse seine vessels
-The only high seas boarding and inspection programme in global tuna fisheries
-The world’s largest international satellite-based vessel tracking programme, tracking over 2,000 high seas tuna vessels
Information and knowledge improvements have been made over the life of the project in determining the status of target and some non-target stocks, of better understanding the ecosystem including trophic status, of the impact of environmental variability on target species abundance and distribution and by assessments of ecological risk. (#2131, Pacific SIDS Fisheries)
Catchment protection measures
Year: N/A - Value: 3200 ha5-10% of habitats identified as protected areas and/or undergoing restoration;
On-ground works for flood early warning system completed in Fiji, including hydrometric stations, telemetry and warning systems. Reforestation ongoing in upper Nadi Basin in Fiji, Ngerikiil Catchment in Palau and Apia Catchment in Samoa.
Reforestation ongoing in upper Nadi Basin in Fiji, Ngerikiil Catchment in Palau and Apia Catchment in Samoa. FSM expanding Protected Area reserve; Palau riparian rehabilitation plus zoning protected areas 3,200 ha protected (#2586, Pacific Wastewater)
Establishment of country-specific inter-ministerial committees
Year: N/A - Value: YES[Fisheries]
"INDICATOR#1 Effective national inter-ministry coordination
A high level of coordination amongst Pacific countries was evident during the negotiation for the establishment of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Convention (WCPFC) and the establishment of the WCPF Commission in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. This is evident in the adopted rules for decision making at the Commission, which operates a two-chambered voting arrangement requiring a majority by Pacific island countries to agree on matters of substance. A greater degree of coordination was required at national levels between relevant government institutions dealing with fisheries management overall in aspects of law, compliance, science, economics and policy to bring the WCPFC into force and will continue to be important for successful compliance with the Commission’s adopted conservation and management measures. An analysis of the participation at sub-regional WCPFC working group meetings would reflect the participation of representatives from relevant ministries in the efforts to ensure that legislation and policy allows Pac SIDS to met their international fisheries obligations" (#2131, Pacific SIDS Fisheries)
"Two subregional Heads of State forums The Micronesian Chief Executives Summit and the Melanesian Spearhead Group have established Water and Sanitation Committees. 13 PICs (Cook Islands, Fiji, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Kiribati, Nauru,Niue, Palau, Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI), Tonga, Samoa, Solomons, Vanuatu and Tuvalu) have established National Inter-Ministerial Water Committees.
INDICATOR#3 (Nationally endorsed IWRM plans and WUE strategies in place and driving sustainable water governance reform in PICS by end of project. – 14 National IWRM and Water Use Efficiency Strategies in place, with institutional ownership secured; 20% increase in national budget allocations). Two subregional Heads of State forums The Micronesian Chief Executives Summit and the Melanesian Spearhead Group have established Water and Sanitation Committees,13 PICs (Cook Islands, Fiji, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Kiribati, Niue, Palau, Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI), Tonga, Samoa, Solomons, Vanuatu and Tuvalu) have established National Inter-Ministerial Water Committees and IWRM principles have been incorporated into national strategic frameworks of 3 countries (Vanuatu, Kiribati and Solomon Islands), with continued development in 7 countries (Samoa, Fiji, Cook Islands, Nauru, Niue, Tonga and Tuvalu) and being followed through other paths in 3 countries (FSM, Palau and RMI)." (#2586, Pacific Wastewater)
Regional legal agreements and cooperation frameworks
Year: N/A - Value: YES[Fisheries]
Instrument: Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Convention (WCPF Convention)
Support provided for the participation of Pacific Island governments at the two last sessions of the MHLC process (which saw the adoption of the Convention) and at the five sessions (to date) of the Preparatory Conference. The PrepCon process has been crucial to establishing the administrative, financial and regulatory framework of the new Convention. The Project has also supported Pacific island attendance at the annual meetings of the Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish. (#530, Pacific SIDS SAP)
A critical precursor to improving fisheries management in the WCP was the establishment of a foundational governance institution. Therefore, the OFMP put a high priority on supporting One of the most significant impacts of the OFMP was its contribution to the ongoing negotiations and eventual coming into force of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Convention (WCPF Convention) . This Convention signifies one of the first regional fisheries agreements to implement principles from the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement , i.e.,such as the application of the precautionary approach, that management decisions be based on the best available science, as well as ecosystem considerations and recognition of the special requirements of small island developing states (SIDS) (WCPFC brochure). The WCPF Convention is became considered the legal foundation for the management of fisheries for highly migratory fish species in the Western and Central Pacific. Negotiations for the convention began as far back as 1994, and with the final adoption and signature took taking place in Honolulu, Hawaii in 2000. However, advice and support provided under the OFMP project helped support the OFMP countries to take the necessary ensure that the necessary legal steps were taken for ratification and subsequent entry into force of the WCPF Convention in 2004. (#2131, Pacific SIDS Fisheries)
Regional Management Institutions
Year: N/A - Value: YES[Fisheries]
Body: West Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)
"INDICATOR #1: Effective project implementation support established. [Target: A detailed work plan developed for the region-wide implementation of the SAP; a communications strategy developed, including education and awareness.]
A Project Coordination Unit was fully operational with funding and reporting arrangements to support in-country project-related activities designed and established. Technical advisory and backstopping services were in place and working effectively. Monitoring and evaluation plans were in place and being used by all participating countries on a regular basis.
INDICATOR #2: Enhanced transboundary management. [Target: Formal memorandum of understanding executed by participating countries; stakeholder participation plans developed and implemented.]
Memorandums of Understanding were executed with all 13 countries participating in the implementation of the ICWM component. Stakeholder analysis, participation plans and communications strategies have all been completed. Multi-partite reviews have been held annually. National Task Forces were active in all participating countries and meeting on a regular basis.
INDICATOR #3: Strengthened processes supporting conservation and sustainable use of coastal and watershed resources and community-based stakeholder participation. [Target: National and regional project related strategies developed in the following areas: communication, social assessment, community participation, and economics.]
Regional and national communication strategies were prepared. All participating countries had prepared stakeholder analysis and participation strategies. Most countries had undertaken participatory consultations with key stakeholders to identify root causes and solutions and a few prepared plans for stakeholder participation in these activities. Four countries (Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati and Tuvalu) undertook economic valuation /assessments of solution options to address root causes of focal issues.
INDICATOR #4: National and regional pilot projects implemented. [Target: Guidelines developed for the design, implementation and monitoring of project related community based pilot activities. 50% of participating countries support community based activities of relevance to SAP focal issue environmental concerns.]
Guidelines were developed on project planning and design; social assessment and community participation strategy, and economic strategy. 13 of 14 participating countries were fully engaged in implementing community based pilots that address SAP focal issues and their root causes.
Coordination and collaboration between FFA and SPC strengthened. Additional meetings of the Forum Fisheries Committee (FFC) convened on the margins of the MHLC and PrepCon to facilitate regional consultation and cooperation. Other regional technical consultations, addressing aspects of the Convention, have been held." (#530, Pacific SIDS SAP)
"INDICATOR#4 Newly established and/or strengthened (existing) transboundary waters institutions
All major fishing States have ratified WCPFC as at June 2006. The Convention had entered into force in June 2004, with 12 of the 13 ratifications to bring the Convention into force from Pacific small island developing States (Pac SIDS). The WCPFC is ratified by 33 of the 34 States and Territories that participated in the WCPFC process. Indonesia has yet to achieve full membership.The project has supported WCPFC-related legal, policy and institutional reviews under way in many Pacific SIDS including national fishery status reports, legal reviews and reviews of management plans based on EAFM, and by regional scientific, legal, compliance and policy workshops and consultations.
INDICATOR#5 Financial sustainability of joint transboundary waters institutions
The WCPFC currently operates a work programme with a budget of USD22 million. Its formula reflects that the burden of contributions for the management of migratory fish stocks are expected from those that fish. Pacific Island countries formally established ministerial oversight for regional fisheries affairs in 2004. They continue to meet annually collectively and in the sub-regional formation of Fisheries Ministers from countries that are Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA). Ultimately, issues relating to oceanic fisheries in the Pacific are addressed at the Pacific Forum Heads of State level for the highest possible endorsement" (#2131, Pacific SIDS Fisheries)
"Not part of the project; project is working with existing regional institutions - SOPAC
SOPAC Council instigated a review of the Regional Action Program, including development of National Water Outlook reports of which 8 have been drafted." (#2586, Pacific Wastewater)
Year: N/A - Value: YES[Fisheries]
"INDICATOR#3 Adoption of national and regional legal, policy and institutional reforms that address priority transboundary concerns
The establishment and operation of the Commission Sub-Committees for Science and Technical and Compliance occurred efficiently and without delay in 2005. This also included agreement on respective work programmes and the formation of supporting specialist science groups with which to provide the Commission
advice including the status of major tuna and other migratory species stocks and the impacts of conservation and management measures once they were in force.
Pacific Islands countries have been at the forefront in the development of conservation and management measures applicable regionally but have also through project assistance made substantive progress in aligning national legal, policy and compliance arrangements to ensure that they met their WCPFC obligations including reporting all of which is challenging for the smaller Pacific Islands administrations." (#2131, Pacific SIDS Fisheries)
"Reduction in sewage release into coastal receiving waters
Reduction in catchment deforestation and sustainable forest and land management practices established
Expansion in eco-sanitation use and reduction in freshwater use for sanitation purposes
Reduction in water leakage and increase in water storage facilities
3 PICs (FSM, Palau and RMI) have, through the national committees, undertaken national water summits to launch water policy and legal reform processes directed by Presidential decrees. Forward looking National Outlooks for Water, Sanitation and Climate have been prepared for 8 PICs (Solomons, Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Tonga, Nauru, Palau, FSM and RMI)." (#2586, Pacific Wastewater)
Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis: Agreement on transboundary priorities and root causes
Year: N/A - Value: NO-
Development of Strategic Action Program (SAP)
Year: 1997 - Value: YES"INDICATOR#2 Stakeholder involvement in SAP implementation
The single most significant process outcome from the OFMP has been the contribution to the establishment of
the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission.
Without equal, the single most significant outcome of the OFMP is the establishment and adoption of rule and
procedures and organisational structure for the WCPFC at its inaugural session in December 2004. All Pacific
Island countries participate at high levels and attendance at meetings of the Commission itself (100%) and its
sub committees on Science, Technical and Compliance (80 - 90%) and where appropriate a Northern
Committee. The project has also supported the participation of non-governmental representation, both
environment and industry in the work of the WCPFC with similarly high levels to those of Pacific Island country
representation. This remains the case to the present day." (#2131, Pacific SIDS Fisheries)