Water in the Jordan River Basin is a scarce resource, the availability of which is far below the competing demands for water for all purposes. The population growth rate in the region is one of the highest in the world. The amount of water reaching the Dead Sea is substantially declining, causing the sea level to drop at an alarming rate. Currently, upstream extractions for drinking water and economic activities have reduced inflow to the Dead Sea significantly; its level has fallen nearly 20 meters since the 1960s and is continuing to fall at a rapid rate of 1 meter per year, causing serious economic and ecological impacts. The soil matrix around the Dead Sea is collapsing as the sea level falls, causing sinkholes. Groundwater resources are being lost at an ever higher rate as the fresh/salt water interface recedes. The main challenge is to find a way to arrest the drop in the Dead Sea and restore it to previous levels, while at the same time addressing the growing demand for water. The conveyance of water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea has been identified by the Governments of Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority for detailed investigation through a comprehensive Study Program. The Study Program includes a Feasibility Study and Environmental and Social Assessment supported by a public consultation process. The Study Program will include, consistent with its terms of reference, an independent and transparent examination of alternatives, including enhanced management of the lower Jordan River and increased water-use efficiency. It will also support examination of the potential establishment of the Dead Sea Region as a UNESCO World Heritage site.