International Waters learning Exchange & Resource Network

East Asian Seas Region: Development and Implementation of Public Private Partnerships in Environmental Investments - Results

GEF IDS: 597 , 2138 , 2188 , 2454 , 2700 , 2750



Information sources
#597: UNDP Terminal Evaluation (1998), #2138: UNDP Terminal Evaluation (1998), #2188: GEF3 IW Tracking Tool (2010), #2188: IWC6 Results Note (2011), #2454: UNDP Terminal Evaluation (2006), #2750: GEF4 IW Tracking Tool (2010)

Key Basin Project Results
[Coastal Management
"1. The Sustainable Development Strategy for the Seas of East Asia (SDS/SEA) was adopted by twelve participating PEMSEA countries in December 2003 after three years of extensive consultations.

2. Coastal and ocean policies have been initiated in four countries; draft coastal and ocean policies are being developed in six countries, Integrated Coastal Management coverage of the regional coastline has reached 11.7%, and the PEMSEA Network of Local Governments has adopted the State of Coasts (SOC) reporting system.

3. Piloting, replication and upscaling of a wide range of Integrated Coastal Management programmes is underway in over twenty sites across twelve PEMSEA participating countries." (#2750, East Asian Seas Sustainable)

[Agricultural Pollution]
"1. Standing pig population covered by farms having adopted the project’s livestock waste management systems has reached 726,000 compared to a target of 417,000.
2. Reduction of livestock-induced, land-based pollution flowing into the South China Sea
3. Replication strategies have been drafted and are being finalized for each beneficiary country at a provincial or district level." (#2188, East Asia Livestock)

Catalytic Impacts
The ICM working models developed in Xiamen and Batangas are already being applied or about to be applied elsewhere in the region. Three parallel sites have been established in China. Three similar sites in the Philippines are about to be established. The risk assessment approach provides an entry point for environmental management in the Malacca Straits. However, the interactive database need further development to become useful. The management atlas for Batangas Bay is a valuable tool to enable local governments to do integrated planning. The financial investment mechanism established at the two demonstration sites promote public sector-private sector partnership and is replicable elsewhere. The use of ICM demonstration sites as “laboratory” for coastal management should be replicated in all countries of the region. The model legislation on “Framework for national legislation for marine pollution” is a useful tool for countries wishing to improve their legislative framework to improve environmental management. (#2138, East Asian Seas Partnerships)

Results data
Municipal wastewater pollution reduction
Year: N/A - Value: 10-50% in demos
Implementation of ICM; Reductions in nutrient loadings ranging from 10-50% (#2750, East Asian Seas Sustainable)
Industrial wastewater pollution reduction
Year: N/A - Value: NA
The Laguna de Bay-Pasig River-Manila Bay Watershed IRBCAM project has provided decision-makers with forecasts of total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen and phosphorus loadings in 58 sub-basins up to 2020. The project aims to strengthen investments in pollution reduction to eliminate hypoxia towards achieving the target of a “swimmable” Manila Bay. (#2750, East Asian Seas Sustainable)
Agriculture pollution reduction practices
Year: N/A - Value: 3,515,000 kg of N, 1,719,000 kg of P, 56,676,000 kg of COD and 25,080,000 kg of BOD
INDICATOR#1 Number of standing pig population covered by farms adopting level 2 livestock waste management systems with project support. [Target: 92,000 for Guangdong, China; 203,000 for Thailand; and 122,000 for Vietnam]
Results to date: About 330,000 in China; 296,000 in Thailand; and about 100,000 in Vietnam
INDICATOR#2 Reduced livestock production related emissions of pollutants in surface water systems in the project areas [Target: not specified, based on M&E]
Results to date: Reduction of 3,515 ton of N, 1,719 ton of P, 56,676 ton of COD and 25,080 ton of BOD;
INDICATOR#3 Reduction of nitrogen, phosphorus, BOD, COD and E. Coli bacteria discharge on demonstration sites once the LWM systems are established [Target: meet national standard for China and Thailand, reduced by 80% for Vietnam]
Results to date: It was confirmed by all three countries that the respective national discharge standard has been met but no actual discharge from participating farms occurred;
INDICATOR#4 Overall human health risk posed by pathogens, antibiotics and other residues at discharge level reduced [Target: 50%]
Results to date: It was generally agreed by all three participating countries that the overall human health risk has been much reduced. However, no specific percentage has been collected and estimated which is very difficult to do. (#2188, East Asia Livestock)
Restored habitat, including wetlands
Year: N/A - Value: NA
In line with the implementation of the Sihanoukville Coastal Use Zoning Scheme, the Preah Sihanouk province in Cambodia has established 18 protected area zones covering 2,201 ha of mangroves, seagrass and corals and establishment of a Protected Area in Kampong Smach (3,197 ha) of mangroves and mudflats is underway.

From 2008 to 2010, the Quanzhou (China) government began to restore native mangrove habitats in areas of Quanzhou Bay affected by an alien invasive plant, Smooth Cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). 150 ha of Spartina was removed, complemented by restoration of 134 ha of mangroves. Since 2000, mangrove habitat has increased to over 500 ha in Quanzhou Bay, making it the largest mangrove habitat along the southeast China coast. (#2750, East Asian Seas Sustainable)
Conserved/protected wetland, MPAs, and fish refugia habitat
Year: N/A - Value: 5-10%
5-10% of habitats identified as protected areas and/or undergoing restoration; (#2750, East Asian Seas Sustainable)
Establishment of country-specific inter-ministerial committees
Year: N/A - Value: YES
primarily at national level for ICM sites (#2750, East Asian Seas Sustainable)
Regional legal agreements and cooperation frameworks
Year: N/A - Value: YES
Building on the Putrajaya Declaration of Regional Cooperation for Sustainable Development of the Seas of East Asia (2003), the Haikou Partnership Agreement on SDS-SEA Implementation (2006) and the Manila Declaration on Strengthening the Implementation of ICM for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Adaptation (2009), PEMSEA is working towards the adoption of sustainable ecosystem services for an ocean-based blue economy in the Seas of East Asia through the SDS-SEA implementation. To further strengthen the implementation of the SDS-SEA, PEMSEA developed national and regional SDS-SEA medium term plans (2011-2015).

EAS countries have committed to three priority targets under the SDS-SEA: develop coastal and ocean policies, and supporting institutional arrangements in at least 70% of partner countries by 2015; adopt and implement Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) programmes covering at least 20% of the region’s coastline by 2015; and prepare State of Coasts (SOC) reports, including climate change adaptation measures. (#2750, East Asian Seas Sustainable)
Regional Management Institutions
Year: N/A - Value: YES
Body: Partnerships for the Management of the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA)
National/Local reforms
Year: N/A - Value: NA
[Coastal Management
"Confirmed initiation or implementation of ICM program in 5% of the region's coastline; Certification/recognition of ICM system; Identification of protetcted areas and areas for restoration; Adoption of PSHEM Code for voluntary use as a standard for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of PSHEM System

Coastal and ocean policies have been initiated in four countries; draft coastal and ocean policies are being developed in six countries (five with GEF funding), ICM coverage of the regional coastline has reached 11.7%, and the PEMSEA Network of Local Governments (PNLG) has adopted the SOC reporting system, committing 100% of its membership to implement the system by 2015.

The EAS Partnership Council and the Executive Committee approved the following guidelines: the Port Safety, Health and Environmental Management (PSHEM) Code; the Port Safety, Health and Environmental Management System (PSHEMS) Development and Implementation Guideline; and the Guidebook on the State of the Coasts Reporting for Local Governments Implementing ICM. The PSHEMS is being rolled out in seven ports, co-financed by the port authorities, the GEF and the German Technical Cooperation (GIZ). " (#2750, East Asian Seas Sustainable)

[Agricultural Pollution]
"INDICATOR#1 Spatial distribution plans for livestock production and nutrient management plans for livestock waste developed and implemented [Target: Spatial distribution and nutrient management planscompleted/implemented]
Results to date: China: completed in Guangdong; Thailand: completed in Ratchaburi; Vietnam: completed in Thuong Tin District

INDICATOR#2 National (Guangdong in China) SPP implementing improved (leve 1 and 2) livestock waste management practices [Target: 50% in China (Guangdong); 40% in Thailand; and 50% in Vietnam]
Results to date: China 70%; Thailand 40%; Vietnam 40%" (#2188, East Asia Livestock)
Development of Strategic Action Program (SAP)
Year: 2003 - Value: YES
The Sustainable Development Strategy for the Seas of East Asia (SDS/SEA) was adopted by 12 participating PEMSEA countries in December, 2003, in Putrajaya, Malaysia. The SDS-SEA was developed after three years of extensive consultations with the 12 participating governments and 16 stakeholder partners, and embodies a shared vision among stakeholders towards achieving the sustainable use of coastal and marine natural resources, protection of the ecosystems, protection of life and property of the coastal population and sustaining the benefits provided by marine ecosystems. Action programs are developed under six major strategies: Sustain, Preserve, Protect, Develop, Implement and Communicate. In 2009, the Agreement Recognizing PEMSEA’s International Legal Personality was ratified by eight Country Partners: Cambodia, PR China, DPR Korea, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Philippines, RO Korea, and Timor Leste formalising PEMSEA’s transformation into an independent legal entity tasked with coordinating and monitoring SDS/SEA implementation. (#2750, East Asian Seas Sustainable)