Ecosystem-Based Marine Spatial Management: An Evolving Paradigm for the Management of Coastal and Marine Places
AUTHORS: Fanny Douvere and Charles Ehler ABSTRACT: The development and industrialization of the world’s oceans has evolved rapidly since the 15th century. Ongoing population growth, technological development, and growing consumer demand increased considerably the need for more food, energy, and trade. Future outlooks for offshore activities confirm that this evolution has not come to an end and is even likely to accelerate in the coming decades. The share of natural gas production derived from offshore exploitation, for example, is expected to grow to nearly 40 percent by 2030 (compared to 20–25 percent in 1990), as exploration and developments will shift to more lucrative offshore sites, a trend partly stimulated by high oil prices. A substantial contribution is expected from renewable energy (e.g., offshore wind farms and wave parks) by 2030, mainly because of decreasing exploitation costs. Future global growth of the cruise ship industry is estimated at an annual rate of 8 percent, while eco-tourism has grown to a multi-million dollar business in nearly 25 years, on an average annual growth rate of 12 percent since 1990. Published in Ocean Yearbook, January 2009.
17 Oct 2019