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by admin last modified Nov 23, 2010 02:06
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FileLake Nakuru: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (800 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
Lake Nakuru (Figure 1) is one of several shallow, alkaline-saline lakes lying in closed hydrologic basins in the eastern African Rift Valley that stretches from northern Tanzania through Kenya to Ethiopia (Livingstone and Melack 1984). Typical of shallow, saline lakes around the world, climatic variations have caused large changes in its depth and salinity on annual, decadal and longer time scales, with major consequences for the lake’s ecology. Daily fluctuations in heating and cooling have resulted in strong cycles of stratification and mixing (Melack and Kilham 1974). High insolation and adequate supply of nutrients usually support abundant phytoplankton (Peters and MacIntyre 1976; Melack et al. 1982; Vareschi 1982). Supersaturation of dissolved oxygen in the upper waters during the day often is observed because of the high rates of photosynthesis (Melack and Kilham 1974; Vareschi 1982). Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLake Malawi/Nyasa - Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (605 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
Lake Malawi/Nyasa (Figure 1) is the ninth largest, and third deepest, freshwater lake on Earth (Bootsma and Hecky 2003). In addition to its great size, it is distinguished by being home to a greater diversity of fish species than any other lake, the majority being endemic (Fryer and Iles 1972; Ribbink et al. 1983). As a result of these two qualities—its great size and biodiversity—the lake is recognized as part of the global heritage. At a time when both the quantity and quality of freshwater are becoming issues of concern in many parts of the world, the value of a lake that contains nearly 7% of the Earth’s available surface freshwater is becoming increasingly obvious. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLaguna de Bay: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (849 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
Laguna de Bay is the largest, most important lake in the Philippines. Its watershed contains 66 Local Government Units (LGUs), grouped into 5 provinces, 49 municipalities and 12 cities with an estimated population of 6 million people. The creation of the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) in 1966 started with a vision of the political leaders from the provinces of Rizal and Laguna to cultivate the potential of the lake and its environs for further development and, at the same time, control its environmental degradation. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileKariba Reservoir: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (787 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
In post-World War II, Britain had large areas of influence in Africa, including southern Africa. Other than Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique) and South West Africa (Namibia), the rest of southern Africa comprised a cluster of countries under British authority. Rather than implementing separate development agendas for each of its territories, Britain proposed a federal structure for the territories north of the Limpopo River. Under this arrangement, some facilities (e.g., secondary and tertiary education; key medical facilities) could be strategically developed under the federal umbrella, thereby avoiding duplicating facilities which the less developed protectorates of Nyasaland (Malawi) and Barotseland would likely be unable to sustain. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLake Issyk-Kul: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (771 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
Lake Issyk-Kul (also referred to simply as Issyk-Kul), located in the Kyrgyz Republic (commonly referred to as Kyrgyzstan), is the world’s second-largest high-altitude lake and a major biological and economic resource of the country. Among lakes lying 1,200 meters or more above sea level, Issyk-Kul is second only to Lake Titicaca in overall area. Slightly salty, the lake never freezes, which contributes to its importance as a stopover for migratory birds. Over the past few decades, the level of the lake has dropped some 2.5 m as the result of water diversions. In the face of several serious threats to the lake, the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic has created the Issyk-Kul Biosphere Reserve, run by a Directorate General. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileGreat Lakes of North America: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (653 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
The North American Great Lakes constitute the largest system of fresh surface water on the face of the earth (Figure 1) and are linked to the Atlantic Ocean by the St. Lawrence River. The Great Lakes cover over 244,000 km2 of surface water; 520,000 km2 of drainage area; and a combined volume of nearly 23,000 km3. Individually, the five Great Lakes are among the fifteen largest freshwater lakes in the world. Main LBMI report - http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original LBMI website - http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLake Dianchi: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (1.1 MB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
Lake Dianchi is an ancient tectonic lake (approximately 3.2 million years old) located in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. It is the 6th largest freshwater lake in China and the largest in Yunnan. The lake and its basin (Figure 1) are located wholly within the jurisdiction of Kunming Municipality, which contains Kunming City, the largest city in Yunnan Province. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLake Constance: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (639 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
This Experience and Lessons Learned Brief was prepared by the Lake Constance Foundation (Bodensee-Stiftung), a private environmental organization. The sections concerning contributions to unsustainable lake use, constraints to sustainable management of the lake and lessons learned are reflections from the point of view of an environmental organization. Our statements agree with the Lake Constance Environmental Council (Umweltrat Bodensee) and its 18 regional member organizations. National and regional administrations and the international commissions, as the “officials” responsible for governance and management, might have another opinion concerning some aspects covered in this paper. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLake Cocibolca/Nicaragua: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (662 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
Lake Cocibolca (Figure 1), also know as Lake Nicaragua, is the largest freshwater lake in Central America and one of the largest in the Americas. The history of Nicaragua and Central America has developed linked to the interests of conquerors and foreigners who sought to grasp the geopolitical assets of the Nicaraguan freshwater inland sea and its connection to the Caribbean through the San Juan River. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileChilika Lagoon: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (2.2 MB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
The Chilika Lagoon (also referred to here as Lake Chilika, Chilika Lake, or simply “Chilika”) is the biggest lagoon on India’s eastern coast (see Figure 1). Its size fluctuates substantially within the course of a year, with a maximum area of 1,165 km2 during the monsoon season and a minimum of 906 km2 during the dry season. It is of relatively recent origin, being formed several thousand years ago. Freshwater runoff from the drainage basin, combined with saline water inflows from the ocean, result in a wide range of fresh, brackish and saline water environments within the lagoon, with this spatially and temporally diverse water environment supporting an exceptionally productive ecosystem. Main LBMI report - http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original LBMI website - http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLake Champlain- Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (2.5 MB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
The Lake Champlain basin (Figure 1) is home to a diverse and significant array of natural, cultural, and recreational re-sources. Extending west into New York’s Adirondack region, east into Vermont’s Green Mountains, and north onto Québec’s fertile flatlands, the basin’s rich history of human inhabitance is interwoven with its natural features. Not long after glaciers retreated from the area over 10,000 years ago, Native Americans hunted, fished, and later farmed along the lake’s shoreline. In 1609, explorer Samuel de Champlain sailed into the lake that would later bear his name, initiating European settlement in the basin. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLake Chad: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (621 KB) by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 01:09
The Lake Chad drainage basin (Figure 1) is located between latitude 6° and 24° N and longitude 7° and 24° E. The drainage basin covers an area of 2,434,000 km2, an estimated 8% of the total African land surface area (UNEP 2004). Figure 1 also depicts the conventional basinŽ, which is the geographic limit of the Lake Chad Basin Commission, which was created under the Fort Lamy Convention in 1964. Lake Chad is situated on the edge of the Sahara Desert, and provides a vital source of water to human, livestock and wildlife communities. Over the past few decades, the region has experienced a series of devastating droughts. The lake is one of Africas largest freshwater lakes, but has shrunk dramatically over the last 40 years. In the absence of longerterm data (i.e., 80-100 years), however, the present shrinkage can only be regarded as a temporary, rather than permanent change. Within the last century the lake has been as large as 25,000 km2 and as small as one-twentieth of that size. It is an extremely shallow lake, rarely more than 7 m deep. The lake supports a growing human population, as well as millions of birds and a number of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, despite the fact that its potential evaporation rate is four times as large as the rainfall rate in the region. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLake Biwa: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (712 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
This brief outlines the major management issues for Lake Biwa, the largest freshwater lake in Japan. The lake and its watershed communities have enjoyed a common history for thousands of years, fostering a unique lake culture in the surrounding area. The birth of the lake can be traced back to some four million years ago. As one of few ancient lakes in the world, it embraces a rich ecosystem, with fifty-seven endemic species being recorded. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileBhoj Wetland: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (613 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
South Asia, home to over one-fifth of the world’s is facing a growing water crisis. This region is in the grip of continuing flood and drought cycles, dictating the need for a long-term strategy for management of its water resources. Big and small water bodies, in the form of lakes and reservoirs, dot the landscape of South Asia. These ecosystems impound precious freshwater, and are the most easily-accessible source for human use. ... Because of the ecological, economical and recreational potential of lakes, there is an urgent need to protect, rehabilitate and conserve them as precious natural resources. This brief examines how these issues have been addressed for the Upper and Lower Lakes of Bhopal, collectively know as the Bhoj Wetland (Figure 1). Main LBMI report: http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original LBMI website: http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLake Baringo: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (571 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 08:24
Lake Baringo is named after the local word ‘Mparingo’, meaning lake. The lake is located in the Eastern Rift Valley in Kenya and is one of the seven inland drainage lakes within the Rift Valley drainage basin. The lake has a surface area of about 108 km2 and drains a total area of 6,820 km2 (Figure 1). The lake is located in the administrative district of Baringo at an altitude of 1,000 m above sea level, while its basin extends to the neighboring districts of Koibatek, Laikipia and Nakuru. Main_LBMI_report--http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original_LBMI_website--http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileLake Baikal: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief by admin — last modified May 07, 2014 10:59
The paper focuses on the Lake Baikal watershed and includes a summary of the science, policy, and economics of the region; an assesment of the current watershed management structures around Baikal; an assessment of the GEF Russian Biodiversity Conservation Project and its smaller Baikal component; and a summary of lessons learned and next steps for the region. Date created: February 27, 2006.
FileAral Sea: Experience and Lessons Learned brief (Lake Basin Management Initiative). 2005. (636 KB) by admin — last modified Nov 30, 2010 01:01
This report gives an overview of major environmental and the socio-economic challenges that the Aral Sea region is facing, threats to the sustainable management of the lake global basin, major measures supported by the governments and the international donor organizations aimed to address these the critical environmental problems, and lessons learned from the cooperation environmental cooperation to date. Main LBMI report: http://www.iwlearn.net/publications/ll/lbmi_main_report_2005.pdf/view Original LBMI website: http://www.ilec.or.jp/eg/lbmi/index.htm
FileRecharge of the Guarani Aquifer System through the Serra Geral Formation: Well-head Protection Zone Definition - PHD Synthesis (Verstraeten) by admin — last modified May 02, 2007 09:37
The combined objectives of this PhD and the research project in which it is inserted, called “The Serra Geral Formation as a hydraulic connection between the Guarani Aquifer System and the land surface: structural analysis and in-situ tests”, are to define a flow model for the basalt, determine the hydraulic parameters of it’s preferential flow paths, characterize the recharge of the GAS for this specific geologic setting and specify well head protection zones. Ingrid Verstraeten
Groundwater Learning Background Documents by Mish Hamid — last modified May 02, 2007 05:22
This page contains a list of background documents relevant to groundwater learning in the GEF IW portfolio.
ContactOrganizationMarine and Coastal Environment Management Project (MACEMP) by deepa — last modified Feb 19, 2014 02:01
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