This chapter discusses risk scenarios for oil spills in marine as well as terrestrial environments, along with the
environmental impact of routine releases of contaminants from oil and gas exploration. Special sections of the
chapter are devoted to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Of all the contaminants associated with
petroleum production, these persistent organic pollutants present the greatest risk to environment and health.
PAHs also have several other sources that contribute to their load in the environment.
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