2002 Radioactivity Report
AMAP, 2004. AMAP Assessment 2002: Radioactivity in the Arctic. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway.
- Radioactivity in the Arctic
- The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) was established in 1991 to monitor identified pollution risks and their impacts on Arctic ecosystems. In 1997 the first AMAP report, Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report* was published.
- Radioactive Contamination and Vulnerability of Arctic Ecosystems
- Monitoring the levels and trends of man-made radionuclides in Arctic environments is a central part of the AMAP programme. The first AMAP assessment presented several radionuclide time series for the Arctic. Although, some of these have been extended in the present assessment, the main emphasis has been on the provision of new information.
- Nuclear Safety Initiatives
- This chapter considers nuclear safety initiatives relating to the eight Arctic countries. However, as many of the practices that impact upon or present a hazard to the Arctic environment are sited in northwest Russia, the emphasis of this chapter is on that region. Safety initiatives mostly relate to safety assessments of nuclear installations, particularly nuclear power plants (NPPs); other initiatives address regulatory improvements, arrangements for physical protection, and nuclear safeguards.
- Assessment of Human Exposure
- The first AMAP assessment concluded that: ‘The vulnerability of Arctic terrestrial ecosystems results in a fivefold higher exposure to radioactive contamination compared to that in temperate areas’. Many post-Chernobyl studies have demonstrated that the highest exposures do not necessarily occur in the most contaminated areas, especially in the mid- to long-term after an accident.
- Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Radiation
- There is a growing awareness that radiation risk management needs to address the question of effects on the environment. Radiological protection has traditionally been based on the protection of man. This is because the international advisory body on such matters, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), has maintained a strong bias toward human health.
- Potential Accident Scenarios
- This chapter considers the nature and scale of consequences arising from potential accidental releases of radioactivity into the Arctic environment from sources under human control.