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Technical Reports

by Christian Ledermann last modified Nov 20, 2008 08:33 AM
TDAs, SAPs ...
FileRussian Arctic Giwa Regional Assessment 1a by admin — last modified Aug 11, 2014 09:02 AM
This report presents the results of the Global International Waters Assessment for the Russian Arctic (GIWA region 1a), as determined during three workshops. The fi rst Scoping and Scaling Workshop was held in Zvenigorod (Moscow) from 15-18 April 2002. To achieve the workshop’s objectives, 17 scientists whose expertise included issues related to environmental and socio-economic impact assessment in the Arctic region were invited to participate.
FileCaribbean Sea/Small islands 3a Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:11 AM
The GIWA region 3 Caribbean Sea is located in the Wider Caribbean within tropical and sub-tropical latitudes, bounded to the east by the Antilles Island chain, to the west by the Central American isthmus, while the northern portion of the South American sub-continent limits the southern border. The region has some of the most diverse physical and socio-economic characteristics in the world, containing 28 countries or territories of the Central/South American sub-continents and the Lesser Antilles (Small Islands).
FileCaribbean Sea, Venezuela, Central America & Mexico 3bc Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
The GIWA Caribbean Sea region is part of the Wider Caribbean and includes all or parts of 28 island and mainland states – Antigua & Barbuda, Anguilla, Aruba, Belize, Bonaire, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Curaçao, Colombia, Dominica, Grenada, Guatemala, Guadeloupe, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico (Quintana Roo state), Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks & Caicos, United States Virgin Islands and Venezuela. For the GIWA assessment, the region was divided into three sub-systems: the Small Islands (3a); Colombia & Venezuela (3b); and Central America & Mexico (3c). This report presents the results of the assessment of sub-systems 3b and 3c.
FileCaribbean Islands 4 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:12 AM
The Caribbean Islands GIWA region 4 is located in the Wider Caribbean region, to the southeast of the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Atlantic Ocean and north of the Caribbean Sea. The region comprises the seas and islands of the Greater Antilles group, including the largest Caribbean islands of Cuba, Hispaniola (divided between Haiti in the west and the Dominican Republic in the east), Jamaica, Puerto Rico and the Archipelago of The Bahamas.
FileArctic Greenland, East Greenland Shelf, West Greenland Shelf 1b, 15, 16 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:08 AM
Globally, people are becoming increasingly aware of the degradation of the world’s water bodies. The need for a holistic assessment of transboundary waters in order to respond to growing public concern and provide advice to governments and decision makers regarding management of aquatic resources has been recognised by several international bodies focusing on global environment.
FileBarents Sea 11 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:08 AM
The Barents Sea is a unique Arctic marine ecosystem, characterised by distinct bathymetry and bottom topography, a large oceanic shelf, an extensive polar front, high productivity, and a high abundance and diversity of flora and fauna. The majority of the Barents Sea drainage basin is located in Russian territory, with small parts located in Norway and Finland. As the meeting point between the Atlantic and the Arctic Oceans, and Western Europe and Russia, the Barents Sea has attracted significant attention from many politicians and researchers, who are interested in its biological resources, its oil and gas reserves, as well as the potential risks of radioactive pollution.
FileFaroe Plateau 13 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:08 AM
Globally, people are becoming increasingly aware of the degradation of the world’s water bodies. The need for a holistic assessment of transboundary waters in order to respond to growing public concern and provide advice to governments and decision makers regarding management of aquatic resources has been recognised by several international bodies focusing on global environment.
FileBaltic Sea 17 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
The Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) has been given the unique task of assessing current problems and future threats of transboundary aquatic ecosystems, considering both environmental as well as socio-economic issues in freshwater and marine ecosystems on the entire globe. The Baltic Sea, being enclosed by nine countries, has an obvious transboundary character. This is illustrated by a history of more than 100 years of international cooperation around the Sea, starting with the foundation of the International Council for the Explorations of the Sea (ICES) at Copenhagen in 190
FileCaspian Sea 23 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
This report presents the results of the Global International Waters Assessment of the Caspian Sea drainage basin (GIWA region 23). The geographic boundary of the region is defined as the catchment area of the Caspian Sea which, entirely or partially, covers eight countries: Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, Turkey and Armenia. The majority of the drainage basin is occupied by the five littoral states: Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The transboundary waters that are identified within the region are the Caspian Sea itself and the Volga River that has a major hydrological impact on the Caspian Sea.
FileAral Sea 24 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
Water has always been the most limiting factor for the inhabitants of Central Asia. Historically, the countries of the region have adapted to the water scarce conditions through a legacy of sustainable water management that dates back several thousand years. The Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) of the Aral Sea Basin describes how since the 1960s water abstraction for economic activities, particularly irrigated farming, has become unsustainable and now exceeds the carrying capacity of the region’s ecosystems. Insuffi cient water is allocated to the lower reaches of the region’s rivers and the Aral Sea, which has resulted in an environmental catastrophe.
FileGulf of California, Calorado river basin 27 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:12 AM
The GIWA region 27 covers the Gulf of California and its drainage basins. This report focuses on the Colorado River Basin with emphasis on the delta area. The report presents the results of research, information development and policy analysis. The methodology covers issues such as water availability, regional imbalances, relationships between water use and water quality, and alternative low-cost natural systems for treating wastewater. The papers range from addressing fundamental scientifi c questions regarding the linkages between land use and water quality, to the ecological impacts of excessive water consumption, to the feasibility of applying alternative treatment options.
FileSea of Okhotsk 30 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:09 AM
The GIWA Sea of Okhotsk region comprises the Okhotsk Sea and its surrounding catchments, the largest of which, by far, is the Amur River Basin – a transboundary basin shared between China, Mongolia, Russia and North Korea. Other basins draining into the Okhotsk Sea include those of the Khabarovskiy Kray, Magadanskaya and Kamchatskaya oblasts in Russia.
FileOyashio Current 31 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:09 AM
This report presents the results of the United Nations Environment Programme/Global International Waters Assessment (UNEP/GIWA) of the Oyashio Current region. The report is a contribution to UNEP/GIWA by Russia and was funded by the Pacifi c Geographical Institute, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (FEB RAS). The assessment was conducted in collaboration with the General Northwest Pacifi c Region Environmental Cooperation Center (Japan), the Pacifi c Geographical Institute, the V.I. Il’ichev Pacifi c Oceanological Institute and the Pacifi c Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (TINRO-Centre) (Russia).
FileYellow Sea 34 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
This report presents the results of environmental and socio-economic assessment studies of the Yellow Sea (GIWA region 34a) and the associated water body, the Bohai Sea (GIWA region 34b). The studies, which were facilitated through workshops with the participation of international experts, included impact assessments and causal chain analyses to determine the impacts and root causes of the priority GIWA concerns and issues, respectively. Policy options and associated strategic action programmes were also identifi ed as to address the root causes of the priority environmental problem areas of the region based on the impact assessment and causal chain analysis results.
FileEast China Sea 36 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
The critical stage of the aquatic environment has become widely more apparent not only for experts and scientist, but also for the general public. Freshwater depletion, pollution, habitat destruction and the unsustainable exploitation of living resources are serious transboundary problems that have developed over a fairly short timeframe. Global climate change will also result in unpredictable transformations that will alter the Earth’s freshwater and marine ecosystems.
FilePatagonian Shelf 38 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:13 AM
GIWA region 38, Patagonian Shelf, comprises the La Plata River Basin, the South Atlantic Drainage System, and the Patagonian Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem. Given the significant differences in terms of biophysical and socio-economic aspects, the assessment was carried out separately for two systems: La Plata River Basin and the South Atlantic Drainage System.
FileBrazil Current 39 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:14 AM
This report presents the results of the strategic impact assessment carried out for marine and freshwater resources and the associated living resources of the Brazil Current region, which is part of the Global International Waters Assessment Project GIWA-UNEP/GEF. The scoring procedure was based on: (i) expert opinion obtained during workshops, with the participation of experts on the Brazil Current with different scientific backgrounds and from several institutions and geographical regions of Brazil Current; (ii) expert advice; and (iii) information and data gathered from different sources. The results from the first Scaling & Scoping exercise for the Brazil Current region was based on a workshop with the participation of experts with different backgrounds and regional knowledge.
FileCanary Current 41 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
The GIWA region Canary Current encompasses Cape Verde, the Canary Islands, Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Mali, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau and the western part of Morocco that drains into the Atlantic Ocean. In order to conduct a suitable assessment, the region was divided into two sub-systems in recognition of signifi cant ecological, climatic and cultural diff erences. The northern sub-system covers part of northern Mauritania and the western part of Morocco. The southern sub-system includes the southern part of Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Mali, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and the Canary Islands.
FileAmazon Basin 40b Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:11 AM
The Amazon Basin is the largest basin on the planet and also one of the least understood. Its drainage area covers more than one third of the South American continent, and its discharge contributes almost one fifth of the total discharge of all rivers of the world. The headwaters of the Amazon River are located about 100 km from the Pacific Ocean and it runs more than 6 000 km before draining into the Atlantic Ocean. In addition, the Amazon has 15 tributaries, including the Tocantins River, that measure more than 1 000 km in length.
FileGuinea Current 42 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:12 AM
GIWA region 42 covers the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem (GCLME) and the basins of the rivers flowing into it. The coastal zone stretches over 5 560 km from the Bissagos archipelago in Guinea-Bissau to the mouth of the Congo River. The region includes 28 international river basins and covers entirely or partially 27 countries with a land area of 8 340 200 km2. In spite of the differences in size and population, the countries share many similarities in socio-economic conditions. First and foremost in relation to demography, culture and history; but also in relation to economy and social conditions, with the World Bank characterising most of the countries of the region as “Least developed countries”.
FileLake Chad basin 43 Giwa Regional Assessments by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:13 AM
This report presents the results of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) of the transboundary waters of the Lake Chad Basin. This and the subsequent chapter offer a background that describes the impetus behind the establishment of GIWA, its objectives and how the GIWA was implemented.
FileBenguela current 44 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
The Benguela Current region (GIWA region 44) includes the entire extent of the Benguela Current system and the freshwaters that drain into it. The region spans fi ve countries, including Angola, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa and Lesotho. The total coastline of the region extends some 4 590 km from the Angolan enclave of Cabinda in the north to Cape Agulhas at the southern tip of the African continent. The combined Exclusive Economic Zones of the three coastal states covers some 1.9 million km2, with an estimated 1.4 million km2 falling within the Benguela Current region.
FileIndian ocean Islands 45b Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
The Indian Ocean Islands region comprises the island states of Comoros, Mauritius, Madagascar and Seychelles which are situated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). The combined total Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Island States within the region is approximately 4.1 million km2. This provides the approximate limits of the region (between latitudes 5° N and 30° S and extending as far as 70° E). In terms of economic development, Mauritius and Seychelles appear to have met the basic conditions for sustainable human development, but considerable work is required in Madagascar and Comoros.
FileEast Africa Rift Valley Lakes 47 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:11 AM
The East African Rift Valley Lakes (EARVL), GIWA region 47, runs from the northern end of Lake Turkana Basin to the southern tip of the Lake Malawi/Nyasa Basin and includes all the natural habitat and associated human communities found within the Rift Valley and on the adjacent escarpments (Figure 1). It encompasses parts of the following countries; Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. The main lakes include Victoria, Tanganyika, Malawi, Turkana, Albert, Edward, George and Kivu. All are tropical and together comprise the African Great Lakes ecoregion. However, each lake lies within its own separate drainage basin, with its own assemblage of endemic organisms, most notably the cichlid fi sh species-fl ocks.
FileSouth China Sea 54 Giwa Regional Assessments by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:12 AM
This GIWA report presents the results of Scaling, Scoping, Causal chain and Policy options analyses conducted for the GIWA region 54 South China Sea region in 2001-2002. The South China Sea region contains nine nations; China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei and the Philippines. This Large Marine Ecosystem and its catchments are bounded to the west by the Mekong River (GIWA region 55), north by East China Sea (GIWA region 36), east by the Sulu-Celebes (Sulawesi) Sea (GIWA region 56) and Small Island States (GIWA region 62), and south and southeast by Indonesian Seas (GIWA region 57).
FileMekong River 55 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
This report presents the output of the Global International Waters Assessment for the Mekong River carried out by the Southeast Asia START Global Change Regional Center (SEA START RC), Environmental Research Institute of Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, in collaboration with the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Assessment studies were undertaken in accordance with the methodology developed by GIWA (GIWA 2001) and by conducting Scaling and Scoping Workshops organised by GIWA in collaboration with the SEA START RC.
FileSulu-Celebes Sea 56 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:11 AM
The GIWA region 56 Sulu-Celebes (Sulawesi) Sea includes some of the land and sea areas of three nations; the Philippines, Indonesia (North Sulawesi and East Kalimantan) and Malaysia (Sabah), and forms part of the Philippine-Malay Archipelago, which lies at the centre of global biodiversity. The marine waters of the region form a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME), bounded on most of its western and northern extent by the islands of the Philippines and GIWA region 54 South China Sea, on its southern extent by the Islands of Borneo and Sulawesi and GIWA region 57 Indonesian Seas and eastern extent by GIWA region 62 Pacifi c Islands.
FileIndonesian Seas 57 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:13 AM
The Indonesian Seas GIWA region 57 contains most of the land and seas of the Republic of Indonesia; some 18 000 islands with 1.9 million km2 of land area and 6 million km2 of seas. The region is geologically and topographically diverse, lying at the global centre of tropical marine biodiversity. Because of the highly signifi cant geographic, oceanographic, demographic and biodiversity diff erences within the region, the Assessment was conducted independently for three sub-systems
FilePacific Islands 62 Giwa regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:12 AM
The Pacifi c Islands GIWA region 62 includes all of the 23 island nations or territories of the tropical Pacifi c Ocean that embrace the cultural areas of Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia. The region covers about 12% of the world’s ocean space. These island states and territories range from very large, high continental islands, to countless off shore large and small islands that may be generally grouped as high islands, coral lime stone islands and atolls.
FileHumboldt Current 64 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:11 AM
The Humboldt Current region is located along western South America, stretching from the Ecuadorian-Colombian border (1° N) to the south of Chile (55° S). A feature of the continental area is the Andean Mountain range that extends along the entire region defi ning the catchment of the Humboldt Current region. The countries in the region include parts of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and the whole of Chile. The impacts of the areas in Bolivia and Argentina on the Humboldt Current region are negligible and therefore these countries are excluded from the report.
FileEastern Equatorial Pacific 65 Giwa Regional Assessment by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:10 AM
The GIWA Eastern Equatorial Pacifi c region extends along the west coast of Central America from the Colombian-Ecuador border in the south to northern Central Mexico. It includes El Salvador and the Pacifi c coastal areas of seven other countries – Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia. The region was divided into three sub-systems – Southwest Mexico, Central Equatorial Pacifi c and Pacifi c Colombian. The GIWA assessment focuses predominantly on the Central Equatorial Pacifi c sub-system as it includes most of the signifi cant and reported transboundary issues.
FileTransboundary Waters in the Black Sea-Danube region by admin — last modified Mar 12, 2010 01:25 PM
The main goal of this report is to examine the possibilities of the EU Water Framework Directive in promoting water management in the whole Black Sea catchment area. However, the report will mainly focus on the Danube River Basin and the Black Sea coastal states in part because most of the Danube countries and the Black Sea coastal states, are already involved in the EU enlargement process and are directly interested in the implementation of the Directive.
FileEutrophication in the Black Sea region by admin — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:13 AM
This report provides supporting information to facilitate the assessment of environmental and socio-economic impacts of eutrophication and to analyze the causes behind eutrophication. Provided in this report is an assessment of the state of eutrophication in the Azov and Black Sea marine regions, as well as the river basins of the main tributaries, namely the Danube, Dnipro and Don. The land-based pollution and its main sectoral causes are analyzed by river basins and marine regions, as well as by country. This report describes in brief the major trends in the region with respect to eutrophication.
FileChallenges to International Waters; Regional Assessments in a Global Perspective by Damaris Waigwa — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:09 AM
The GIWA Final Report provides a comprehensive review of the most important findings from the GIWA regional reports. It summarises the major transboundary concerns and their environmental and socio-economic impacts. To better understand these concerns and develop solutions to address them, the Report identifies the root causes and draws policy relevant conclusions. It also outlines knowledge gaps which impede the sustainable management of international waters.
FileTroubled waters - Bridging Science and Society by Damaris Waigwa — last modified Jan 21, 2011 08:53 AM
On the 23rd of August a number of representatives1 from the wide spectra of integrated water research management (IWRM) were gathered in the Swedish city of Kalmar. The meeting was arranged for the purpose of involving actors from the field of management of transboundary water resources to share and discuss important issues to be considered for future activities within the project Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) run by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and executed by the University of Kalmar (UoK).
FileTransboundary Waters in the Black Sea-Danube region; Legal and fi nancial implications by Damaris Waigwa — last modified Jan 21, 2011 09:02 AM
This report provides an overview of the Black Sea region and its environmental problems. It presents the region’s socio-economic characteristics and examines the water services of the Danube/Black Sea countries. Additionally, it describes the environmental status of the Danube River and of the Black Sea, exploring the main causes behind the region’s water pollution and environmental degradation.
FileEutrophication in the Black Sea region; Impact assessment and causal chain analysis by Damaris Waigwa — last modified Jan 10, 2014 11:13 AM
This report provides supporting information to facilitate the assessment of environmental and socio-economic impacts of eutrophication and to analyze the causes behind eutrophication. Provided in this report is an assessment of the state of eutrophication in the Azov and Black Sea marine regions, as well as the river basins of the main tributaries, namely the Danube, Dnipro and Don. The land-based pollution and its main sectoral causes are analyzed by river basins and marine regions, as well as by country. This report describes in brief the major trends in the region with respect to eutrophication.
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